National Energy Accounts: Sources, Methods and Citation
The sources and methods employed in the preparation of the following series have been more widely explained and discussed in the following books listed in the ‘Publications’ section of this page: Malanima, 1996; Kander, 2002; Malanima, 2006a; Warde, 2007; Henriques, 2009; Henriques, 2011. Further sources are provided on the relevant figures and data spreadsheets. These books provide exact details on the statistical procedures followed and sources employed. Although the methods employed are generally the same, some small differences exist with respect to the calculation of wind, water, food and fodder. Some national datasets do not include all energy carriers. These differences, however, do not compromise overall the comparisons among the following series. Here we provide some more information on the features and sources of the series that should be noted:
1. Firewood consumption has been calculated in a variety of ways by the various authors. Sometimes totals are not included for the later part of the series, even if IEA or other organizations report it. The same applies to other forms of energy such as incinerated waste products;
2. this work considers as primary electricity the following sources: geothermal (only for electricity); hydropower, nuclear power, wind, photovoltaics, tidals, wave and solar thermal (only for electricity). Generally electricity that has been derived from firewood, wastes, or other biomass is not included in ‘primary electricity’ as this entails thermal losses;
3. non-energy uses of oil and natural gas are excluded from the totals.
The data is linked to the database of IEA – International Energy Agency (2008), Energy Balances of OECD countries, https://data.iea.org; IEA – International Energy Agency (2011), Energy Balances of OECD countries, version 2011. This laborious work was done by Sofia Henrqiues.
Preferred citation for individual country data in this database is to cite the main scholar or source first and then this database, if this database is the source of information.
If the reference is to data and discussion in Power to the People, thepreferred citation is to the original compiler of the data, and then that volume. That is, for data about Portugal: "Henriques (2009, 2011) in Kander et al (2013)". Preferred citation for data about Spain: Rubio (2005) plus some revised statistics work done for Gales et al (2007) in Kander et al (2013)). For the Netherlands preferred citation is to: “Gales et al 2007 in Kander et al (2013)”. Preferred citation for France is to “Gales’ original series in Kander et al (2013)”. For Sweden the preferred citation is “Kander (2002) in Kander et al (2013)”. For England and Wales: “Warde (2007) in Kander et al (2013)”. For Italy: “Malanima (2006) in Kander et al (2013)”. For Germany: “Gales’ and Warde’s original series in Kander et al (2013)”.
Full methodological explanations and sources for the data series on France and Germany have not yet been published, although they very largely conform to the methods employed in calculating other series. It is anticipated that these will be published and posted on this site imminently. In the meantime, we are very happy to receive enquiries.