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From left to right, the graph shows to what extent individuals and institutions were associated with the theories of John Maynard Keynes.



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    This graph is perhaps most useful in evaluating institutions. The LSE leans against Keynes, as does Oxford. King's, Keynes's own college, appears significantly more in his camp than the other collegiate center of economic thinking at Cambridge: Trinity. The entire graph seems to be leaning slightly towards Keynesianism, though this is in large part just a reflection of just how connected Keynes himself was.

    This graph was constructed by identifying noted intellectual supporters and opponents of Keynes's ideas. Each of these groups formed a cluster at either end of the graph. Their own connections then pulled the rest of the economists and institutions toward one pole or the other. It is important to note here that this graph is of some, but limited, help in terms of evaluating to what extent a figure was supportive or dismissive of Keynes. Keynes's contemporaries would likely have had an opinion on his ideas even if they did not publically take a stand one way or the other. This internal or less public information has not been reflected in the data underlying the graph.  Institutions, however, do not have internal mental lives as people do. Their valence is determined instead by the people associated with them, making their position in this spectrum much more easily modeled. 

    Nodes are sized based on the number of connections they have. It should also be noted that certain institutional connections are reflected on the graph. A central "Cambridge" node connects to all Cambridge colleges and faculties. Similarly, all the Oxford, University of London, Wales, and Dublin institutions are connected.

    For general information on sources, refer to the "Scope and Sources" page on the project homepage.
    Keynes was arguably the most polarizing figure in the history of 20th century economics. In his own day, he took great pains to cast his work as a bold departure from current strains of thought. Responsible for educating a generation of Cambridge students, Keynes was also the editor of the house journal, the Economic Journal. Even at Cambridge, there was a marked division between supporters and detractors. He attracted a tight-knit group of followers including Richard Kahn, who developed the multiplier effect from Keynes's work, as well as Joan Robinson and R.F. Harrod, who built Keynesian growth models. Harrod wrote Keynes's biography. Yet Keynes also left a large group of Cambridge economists feeling isolated and marginalized. This group included Dennis Robertson, who left for London after a dispute with Keynes and John Hicks, who moved to Manchester after just three years in Cambridge. Still others objected to Keynes's work on more ideological grounds.